Friday, 17 March 2017

Floating Office

The 'floating office analysis' approach was developed as an element in the methods I am using to analyse recordings of narrative interviews with HE students. It is the 'Revisit audio' stage below that was carried out at sea. 

Overall Process
Carry out the interview via Skype or Phone 
Listen and Transcribe
Listen and annotate
Break down text into small meaningful units and paste into spreadsheet rows
Develop codes using colour tags and identify themes
Reassemble rows from individual spreadsheets onto 'theme sheets' to organise a synthesis of themes across participants
Revisit audio, listen at whole story level to check for possible misinterpretation and any missed aspects. This is a checking stage during which I wanted to re-engage with the whole story of each narrative by listening to recordings in the same immersive way I would listen to a radio play. 
Revisit spreadsheet analysis and augment with comments from this vocalised analysis.

Experience

I transferred two 1 hour interview recordings to my phone, put it in a waterproof phone case put my headphones on and set off for a gentle sea kayak trip. Recording comments on the GoPro worked reasonably well in practice, battery life is over 4 hours so it was running continuously. Wind noise was low although I had to speak loudly for my voice to register through the waterproof casing. Operating the phone with wet hands wasn't feasible so I listened without pause and rewind /replay. 

Standing on the beach ready to set off I felt almost like this was skiving, that this might be an excuse to go and play rather than to study. I felt a sense of guilt despite being aware that this was a planned step on my journey and that there are many good reasons why it is important to escape the traditional office. Doctoral study is well known for being stressful, it is a high stakes process that is reliant on surviving a viva, failure can potentially mean 4-6 years of intensive effort leads to no qualification. Preserving personal well-being throughout this time is important. I feel totally at home on water, and being in or on the sea has pretty much been a lifetime addiction, I feel connected and relaxed in this environment, in calm seas it is a meditative experience, in rougher seas it gets the adrenaline flowing and is a joyful experience. This day was relatively calm and ideal for my purpose. 

As I paddled along listening to my interview recordings I felt more connected to them than when I was transcribing. It was very much like listening to a radio play, it also reminded me of watching TV with people who are into watching sport. I found myself verbalising commentary in the way they do although I was not shouting at the ref or the players but I was expressing my empathy with some comments and being a little critical of others. 


There were times when i would have liked to pause - rewind - re-listen to some bits but that was not particularly practical. The emphasis and the weaving of themes throughout the narrative became clearer on this listening. The extract below is the opening words of one interview with a graduate whose first language is not English. The strength of her emphasis seemed clearer, the theme of prioritising her role of being a mother to four young children was apparent on my spreadsheet but after this listening I added words like 'firm' and 'strong' to better indicate the depth of the emphasis. It felt like she had revisited the prioritising of being a mother repeatedly during the whole of the interview in order to ensure I picked it up and to convey clearly why she had made certain decisions during her study.



"For me, being that I am also a mother of children, and also part time working it was very important for me that I could do it online as opposed go into uni...[pause] That was the main reason for me to choose the course…[ 4 sec pause] for me it was ‘always mother first.’ [firm conviction] so that was the main reason at outset - it was manageable. [strong emphasis] ."

The message that rang out during this listening was that the participant had set clear parameters in order to manage her study along with life and work commitments without significantly compromising the life experience for those around her. Her strategy for achieving this was to create a detailed individual learning plan and to modify it regularly to track progression. The more detail she put into the ILP the more useful it became and the more confident she felt in respect of her ability to be flexible. 



Below is an edited extract from my third cycle of inquiry into analysing audio recordings of interviews while doing one of my favourite activities. In the extract I am reflecting on the experience rather than the actual interview data. Unfortunately on the day I did not notice a splash on my camera casing - hence the blurred centre. 


video


I have only recently started to explore literature relating to the impact of stress on psychological and physiological well-being, some notes are included below.

Notes on literature
Hartig et al. (2003) identified that regular access to restorative natural environments can interrupt processes that reduce health and well-being. In 2004 the Chief Medical Officer in England identified that regular exercise of a minimum of 5 periods per week has a similar impact to treating moderate depression with antidepressant drugs. The physiological processes underpinning these changes are discussed by Epel, et al. (2009) and Epel (2009) who show that telomere shortening is linked to chronic stress exposure and depression. Telomeres are protective nucleoprotein structures which are located on projections present on eukaryotic chromosomes. 


 Free radicals (red) and a mitochondria - these were once free living organisms that now live within our own cells in an endosymbiotic relationship.

Psychological stress causes excessive release of free radicals which leads to an imbalance against available antioxidant defences. This ‘oxidative stress’ damages telomeres. 

Cells with shortened telomeres are likely to show increased cell senescence (cell ageing and loss of the ability to replicate) and/or apoptosis (programmed cell death). This increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, vascular dementia and degenerative conditions such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, diabetes and other lifestyle diseases with the potential to develop chronic states likely to provoke early mortality. Hezel, Bardeesy and Maser (2005) link positive states of mind to increases in telomere maintenance and the healthy functioning of eukaryotic chromosomes.

Mitchell and Popham (2008)  discuss how contact with natural environments can reduce stress and blood pressure and that people living near natural green spaces are likely to have less health problems, and to live longer, than those living in highly urbanised environments. Depledge and Bird (2009) highlight that: “less than half of all men and a third of all women are active enough to support good health, creating additional vulnerability to cancers, heart disease, stroke and, mental and physical disability.” they also point out that both coastal areas and inland water bodies are particularly effective in stimulating people to be more active and that regular contact with natural environments improves health in particular mental illness such as depression and lifestyle diseases associated with obesity. The Natural England (2011) survey generated data that indicated that visits to the coast were more effective in generating stress-reducing, positive emotions than visits to natural or man-made green spaces, this is reinforced by Ashbullby et al. (2013) who point out that a strong body of evidence is emerging that blue spaces can be particularly beneficial for psychological wellbeing. 


Wheeler et al. (2012) analysed 2001 census data and reported an “apparent gradient of increasing self-reported good health with proximity to the coast in England”. They also noted the effect possibly being strong enough to mitigate negative health effects due to low socio-economic status. The sample size was large; however, they note that despite a relatively limited evidence base acknowledgement of the effect in health policies is growing. Shortcomings include the fact that the data cannot acknowledge potential effects due to migration of richer and healthier people to coastal areas; however, they point out that the coast - health association appears to be greater in deprived areas. 


In 2013 White and some authors of the aforementioned publication carried out a panel survey in an attempt to counter potential weaknesses in Wheeler et al. (2012) by analysing self-reported health from individuals who have lived at varying distances from the coast in England. This data is longitudinal in structure but still had inherent weaknesses; however, it does include people who have and have not lived at varying distances from the coast during the period of study so enables consideration of other factors such as changes in employment status. In-line with findings from Wheeler et al. (2012) this study also found that individuals reported better health in years when they lived within 5 km of the coast. The effect was marginal in the sense that beyond the 5km proximity band there was little additional impact no matter how much further from the coast individuals lived. 


The authors acknowledge a potential benefit relationship and point out that further research is needed. These studies were based on self-reported perceptions of health, it would be interesting to carry out a longitudinal study based on medical health records to compare with perceived health although perceptions of benefit could be considered as relating to the well reported placebo effect in that if perceived benefit is part of a belief system it may have physiological and psychological impact regardless of the inherent properties of the source of that benefit.


References 



Ashbullby, K. J., Pahl, S., Webley, P. and White, M. P.,  2013 The beach as a setting for families’ health promotion: A qualitative study with parents and children living in coastal regions in Southwest England, Health and Place, September 2013, Vol.23, pp.138-147 

Chief Medical Officer, 2004. At Least 5 a Week: Evidence on the Impact of Physical Activity and its Relationship to Health. HMSO.


Depledge, M. and Bird, W., 2009. The blue gym: health and well-being from our coasts Marine Pollution Bulletin 58, 947–948


Hartig, T., Evans, G.W., Jamner, L.D., Davis,D.S. and Gärling, T. 2003. Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings Journal of Environmental Psychology. Vol.23(2), pp.109-123

Epel, E.S., 2009. Psychological and metabolic stress: a recipe for accelerated cellular aging? Hormones 8: pp 7–22.

Epel E., Daubenmier J., Moskowitz, J.T., Folkman S. and Blackburn, E. Can meditation slow rate of cellular aging? Cognitive stress, mindfulness, and telomeres. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009;1172: pp 34-53. 

Hartig, T., Evans, G.W., Jamner, L.D., Davis,D.S. and Gärling, T. 2003. Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings Journal of Environmental Psychology. Vol.23(2), pp.109-123

Mitchell, R., and Popham, F. 2008. Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. Lancet 372: pp 1655-1660


Natural England, 2011. Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment. Annual Report from the 2010–11 Survey. Natural England, Sheffield. 
Wheeler, B. W., White,  M., Stahl-Timmins, W. and Depledge W.H., 2012. Does living by the coast improve health and wellbeing? Health & Place 18 1198–1201 Elsevier

White, M. P., Smith, A., Humphryes, K., Pahl, S., Snelling, D. and Depledge, M. 2010. Blue space: The importance of water for preference, affect, and restorativeness ratings of natural and built scenes. Journal of Environmental Psychology 30 pp 482 - 493 Elsevier



White, M. P., Alcock, I., Wheeler, B. W. and Depledge, M. H. 2013.  Coastal proximity, health and well-being: Results from a longitudinal panel survey. Health & Place 23 pp 97103 Elsevier.

Wednesday, 15 February 2017

BA LTR Major Project titles

Recent major project titles implemented by BA Learning Technology and Research students

Action Inquiry 
An action inquiry into how my practice can be changed to provide more effective support for an autistic child with limited speech capabilities in social interactions. (Learning Support Assistant).

An action inquiry to determine if my practice can be enhanced by the implementation of differentiation to my Work Skills lessons. (Cover Supervisor).

An action inquiry to improve ICT support across a school federation. (ITNetwork
Manager).


An action inquiry into how to improve a middle school website. (TA).

An action inquiry into improving interventions for children with SEN in the primary school setting.

An action inquiry to improve communication in a complex needs classroom. 

An action inquiry to improve the use of email in a university department. 

An action inquiry into improving the delivery of interventions for children with SEN in a school setting.

An action inquiry into how to improve a middle school website. (IT coordinator)

An investigation into improving my time management and organisation skills. (Teaching Assistant, special school).

An action inquiry to develop lesson introductions in a primary school. (Higher Level Teaching Assistant).

Improving how I contribute to training opportunities for coaching staff within my organisation. (Football Development Officer).

An action inquiry into how the development of an online location for shared knowledge can improve the management of University accommodation. (Residence and Accommodation Officer).

An investigation into improving my time management and planning skills. (Dual role Verbal Behaviour therapist/Teaching Assistant).

How can I improve my teaching skills through improving my communication skills? (Teaching assistant - secondary school).

An Action Inquiry to Develop the use of the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) in a Primary School. (ICT leader, unqualified teacher).

Literature based studies

Literature review: outdoor play in Early Years education. 

Literature review: the effects of male teachers in a primary school setting and how this can have both a positive and negative effect on achievement in both boys and girls.

Literature review: The outdoor environment as a facilitator in expanding young children’s capacity for learning. 

Literature review: The effect of male teachers in primary schools on the achievement of boys.
  
Literature review: Traveller and Gypsy Children: education and inclusion.

Literature review: Is there a consensus as to the value of identifying learning styles in helping children learn at a special school?. (Teaching Assistant, KS3). 

Evaluative studies
A case study of the effectiveness of mobile technology to support teaching and learning. (ICT coordinator, primary school).

A case study of personal experience in Work Based Learning. (Receptionist for an accountancy firm).

A case study in music education. (Peripatetic music teacher). 


A case study of the use of technology for teaching in a secondary school. 
  
A case study of good practice in collaborative working between a teacher and support assistant within a primary school.

A review of literature on the impact of technology use on learning in the classroom.

A case study of how effectively iPads are used by staff and students to support teaching and learning in a school federation.

A case study evaluating the benefits of an organisational merger to create a single delivery unit within a central Government department. (Civil Servant).

A case study to investigate collaborative working between a teacher and a learning support worker. (HLTA).

A case study of the techniques used to devise a curriculum plan for the subject of Information and Communications Technology.

Case study: Professional Development for a Higher Level Teaching Assistants in a Special School.

A case study of Assessment for Learning within an infant school. (HLTA).

An evaluative case study of approaches to Information, Advice and Guidance in post 16 apprenticeship programmes.

An evaluative case study of the Using & Applying strand of Key Stage 1 Mathematics.

Case Study Investigation into how effectively mobile devices are used by staff in the Education Village Academy Trust to support teaching and learning.

Research into the theory of middle child syndrome and a case study of real experiences of being a middle child and how these experiences relate to issues identified in the literature. (Family-based study by a mother). 

An evaluative case study of access to online homework within a primary school. 

A case study of the techniques used to devise a curriculum plan for the subject of Information and Communications Technology.

An evaluative case study of the Using & Applying strand of Key Stage 1 Mathematics. 

An evaluative case study of assessment for learning strategies in a primary school. (Deputy Manager). 

Case study: Professional Development for Higher Level Teaching Assistants in a Special School. 

A case study of Assessment for Learning within an infant school.

A case study to evaluate staff attitudes and levels of engagement following the reorganisation of delivery functions in the DfE Academies Group (DfE civil Servant).

An evaluative study of the development of an app for PE teachers.

An evaluation of the use of visual cues in a primary school setting. 

An evaluative study of strategies to combat bullying in a school.

An Evaluative Study of IT service delivery in my department. (IT specialist, car manufacturing company).

An evaluative study of learning through play and storytelling to develop children’s literacy skills. 


An evaluative study of the design, development and use of a self-evaluation resource to promote appropriate behaviour in an Early Years setting. 
  
An evaluative study of the importance of creativity and creative learning in an Early Years setting.

An evaluative case study of approaches to Information, Advice, and Guidance in post 16 apprenticeship programmes.

An evaluative case study of access to online homework within a primary school.

An evaluative study of the advantages and practicality of server virtualisation for a modern secondary college. (ICT Co-ordinator).

An evaluative study of teaching logic skills within the computing curriculum. (IT technician, secondary school).